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Occupational Supply Demand
Unit of Analysis
2612A Medical Science
Program(s) of Study and Training

A program that focuses on the scientific study of the physiological processes involved in low and high-altitude flight and living in space and related low-pressure and low-gravity environments, including sensorimotor interactions, response mechanisms, and the effects of injury, disease, and disability. Includes instruction in anatomy, molecular and cellular basis of muscle contraction, fuel utilization, neurophysiology of motor mechanics, systemic physiological responses (respiration, blood flow, endocrine secretions, and others), fatigue and exhaustion, systemic environmental pathologies, muscle and body training, physiology of specific exercises and activities, physiology of injury, and the effects of disabilities and disease.

A general, program that focuses on the integrative scientific study of biological issues related to health and medicine, or a program in one or more of the biomedical sciences that is undifferentiated as to title. Includes instruction in any of the basic medical sciences at the research level; biological science research in biomedical faculties; and general studies encompassing a variety of the biomedical disciplines.

A program that focuses on the scientific study of the structure and functioning of the heart, vascular system, and blood in animals and human beings and the disorders and diseases associated with the cardiovascular system. Includes instruction in cardiovascular physiology, blood physiology, vasculature, vascular metabolism, neural control of cardiovascular function, microvascular permeability and membrane transport, cardiac contraction mechanisms, homeostasis, and applications to topics such as arteriosclerosis, heart disease, diabetes, vascular remodeling, transplantation, transfusion, and pacemakers and artificial organs.

A program that focuses on the scientific study of physiological processes operating within and among cells, and intracellular communication and behavior, in the context of larger systems and whole organisms. Includes instruction in cell and molecular biology, molecular physiology, cell cycle control, signal transduction, protein structure, membrane biochemistry and structure, ion channel physics, cell respiration and digestion, secretory functions, cell adhesion and communication, information encoding and decoding, and the relation of cell physiology to tissue, organ, and organismic functioning.

A program that focuses on the scientific study of the composition, manufacture, and secretion of protein compounds by cells and glands and the role of endocrine substances in bodily processes. Includes instruction in protein chemistry, protein secretion, membrane biogenesis and transfer methods, cellular communication, gene and cell regulation, cytochemistry, fractionation, radioautography, and applications such as neuroendocrinology.

A program that focuses on the scientific study of the health effects associated with exposure to toxic chemicals and systems occurring in the natural, work, and living environments; the management of environmental toxins and toxicity; and the development of protections for humans, animals, and plants. Includes instruction in applied ecology; microbiology; toxin transport, fate, and degradation; dermal toxicology; reproductive and genetic toxicology; atmospheric and environmental chemistry; metals toxicology; environmental mutagens and biotransformation; nutrient interaction; chemical sensitivity, disorders, and disease; risk assessment; animal waste management; environmental health; and hazardous materials management.

A program that focuses on the scientific study of disease, disability, and trauma patterns within and across populations and the development of health management mechanisms to prevent and control disease outbreaks and injurious behaviors. Includes instruction in biostatistics, biochemistry, molecular biology, immunology, disease and injury determinants, genetic disease and disability factors, behavioral studies, health services research, environmental disease and injury factors, and population studies.

A program that focuses on the scientific study of human genetics from the standpoint of medical applications such as clinical diagnosis, genetic engineering and therapy, transplantation, and the study of genetic diseases and disabilities and their defense. Includes instruction in human molecular genetics; genetic factors causing disease; changes in gene expression during development, differentiation, and pathogenesis; recombinant DNA; gene therapy; clinical genetics; genetic epidemiology; immunogenetics; cytogenetics; and genetics of specific disorders and diseases.

A program that focuses on the scientific study of pathogenic bacteria that are significant factors in causing or facilitating human disease. Includes instruction in the pathogenesis of bacterial diseases, bacterial genetics and physiology, bacterial anatomy and structure, antigens, bacterial reproduction, bacterial adhesion, phagocytes, and the identification of new or mutated bacteria and bacterial agents.

An undifferentiated clinical science program that prepares clinicians to conduct clinical and translational research in various areas. Note: programs that prepare clinicians to conduct research in specific scientific fields should report under the relevant CIP code series (e.g., Series 26 Biological and Biomedical Sciences).

A program that focuses on the scientific study of the molecular and cellular basis of disease, and the application of this knowledge to the development of new clinical and diagnostic tools, medications, and therapies. Includes instruction in cell biology, molecular biology, physiology, pharmacology, biochemistry, genetics, pathology, molecular immunology, research and quantitative methods, and biomedical research computing.

A program that focuses on the scientific study of the biochemical and biophysical characteristics of drugs at the molecular level and their interaction with, and effects on, biological macromolecules and cellular structures and processes. Includes instruction in molecular biology and biophysics; pharmacology of signal transduction, transmitters, and protein synthesis and release; receptors, protein interaction and binding; drug discovery and recognition; molecular toxicology; drug design; pharmacodynamics; developmental genetics; and studies of therapeutic strategies.

A program that focuses on the scientific study of dynamic interactive processes and biochemical communications at the subcellular level. Includes instruction in ion channels and transporters, molecular signaling pathways, endocrine control and regulation, genetic information transfer, homeostasis and molecular control systems, electrophysiology and sensory mechanisms, protein synthesis, and applicable research methods and technologies.

A program that focuses on the scientific study of the genetic determinants of susceptibility to external pollutants and poisons; the interaction of toxic agents with biological systems at the molecular and cellular levels; and the development of countermeasures and treatments. Includes instruction in pharmacogenetics, biomolecular structure, gene expression and regulation, transgenic modeling, toxic events signaling, transcriptional activation, mutagenesis and carcinogenesis, pulmonary toxicology, xenobiotic metabolism, oxidative stress, risk assessment, molecular dosimetry, and studies of specific toxins and treatment therapies.

A program that focuses on the scientific study of drugs that modify the function of the brain and central nervous system, the effects of such drugs on health, disease, perception, motor action, and behavior; and the development of countermeasures and treatment therapies. Includes instruction in neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, behavioral neuroscience, neurobiochemistry, neuropathology, the mechanisms of brain function, medicinal chemistry, pharmaceutics, and studies of specific drugs and drug therapies.

A program that focuses on the scientific study of carcinogens; the onset of malignancy in cells, tissues, blood, and organs; the genetics of cancer; the anatomy and physiology of cancer cells; and the study of cancer behaviors and treatments. Includes instruction in gene expression; oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes; viral genes and cancer proliferation; regulation of signal transduction; cancer proteins; hormonal and growth factors in cancer cells; tumor promotion, progression, and metastasis; carcinogen receptors and metabolism; carcinogen ecology; immunological targeting; and studies of genetic, chemical, radiologic and other treatment therapies.

A program that focuses on the scientific study of the expression, initiation, maintenance and progression of tissue injury and disease, including death, and the relationship of pathogenesis to fundamental molecular and cellular mechanisms. Includes instruction in immunology, microbiology, gene expression, inflammation, cell injury, apoptosis, immunopathology, molecular markers of disease and toxins, neoplasia, growth regulation, and organ- and system-specific investigations.

A program that focuses on the scientific study of drug interactions on biological systems and organisms and the sources, chemical properties, biological effects, and therapeutic uses of drugs. Includes instruction in pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, toxicology, drug therapeutics, drug action, bodily responses to drug events, biochemical proliferation and differentiation, apoptosis, cell biology, medicinal chemistry, and studies of specific drugs and drug interactions.

A program with an integrated, combined approach to the study of pharmacological and toxicological issues in biology and the biomedical sciences. Includes instruction in topics such as solvents, xenobiotic metabolism, chemical toxicity, neurotoxicology, immunopharmacology, biotransformation, tissue culture and in vitro studies, biomolecular analysis, bioactivation and inactivation, enzyme regulation, chemoprevention and chemotherapy, industrial and chemical studies, radiation health, and bioinformatics.

Any instructional program in pharmacology and toxicology not listed above.

A general program that focuses on the scientific study of the functional dynamics, morphology, and biochemical and biophysical communications within organisms and between living systems at all levels of complexity and integration. Includes instruction in reproduction, growth, hormonal action, vascular function, respiration, digestion, sensory perception and processing, sensorimotor integration, signal encoding and conveyance, homeostasis, physical function and malfunction, evolutionary physiology, and disease processes.

Any instructional program in physiology, pathology, and related sciences not listed above.

A program that focuses on the scientific study of reproductive processes and biogenesis in animals and human beings. Includes instruction in reproductive ecology and behavior, reproductive system physiology, endocrinology, developmental biology, neuroendocrinology, evolution and types of reproductive systems, reproductive genetics, physiopathology of reproductive processes, and applications of molecular biology and biophysics to the study of reproductive physiology.

A program that focuses on the scientific study of poisons and other biohazards; their interactions with organisms and their food and respiratory systems; and their prevention, management, and counteraction. Includes instruction in toxicological biochemistry, toxic agents and transporters, toxin fate, toxicokinetics and metabolism, toxin classification, molecular toxic mechanisms, extracellular matrices and cell function, bacterial pathogenesis and mutagenesis, pathophysiology and apoptosis, cell stress and injury, studies of specific toxins, and studies of specific organ systems and physiological functions in relation to toxicological problems.

A program that focuses on the scientific study of vision, visual processes, and related phenomena and clinical research and treatment modalities. Includes instruction in ocular anatomy and physiology, microbiology of the eye, electrophysiology, neurophysiology, corneal physiology, photochemistry, psychophysics, visual biophysics and motor systems, sensory mechanisms and photoreception, eye circulation and metabolism, geometric and physical optics, ocular development across the life span, visual stimuli and perception, color vision, eye motility, biometrics and measurement techniques, visual pathology, and environmental issues.

Occupation(s)

Investigate and describe the determinants and distribution of disease, disability, or health outcomes. May develop the means for prevention and control.

Conduct research dealing with the understanding of human diseases and the improvement of human health. Engage in clinical investigation, research and development, or other related activities. Includes physicians, dentists, public health specialists, pharmacologists, and medical pathologists who primarily conduct research. Practitioners who primarily provide medical or dental care or dispense drugs are included in “Health Diagnosing and Treating Practitioners” (29-1000).